Unknown Nazi war criminal
"It was the virtue of the Nuremberg trial that it was conceived in hatred of war, and nurtured by those starved of peace. Of course, the trial was botched and imperfect...it had to deal with new crimes for which there was no provision in national law or international law."
".. a libel on the military profession." - Vice Admiral Hewlett Thebaud, USN
"... a fantastic desecration of the ideals of Western Civilisation, and appalling miscarriage of justice... a misuse of evidence for vicious ends, all of which will someday be exposed as a shocking travesty of high legal and moral principles." - Henry M. Adams, Ph.D. Professor of History, University of California
Nuremberg Trials. They were supposedly set up to punish those guilty of war crimes. The trial was held by the victors, to punish the defeated. They were meant to make sure that no traces of Nazi Germany remained. It had taken America, Russia and Britain to come together to defeat it and Nuremberg was meant to make sure that all traces were wiped out. The genie was firmly put back into the bottle and it was firmly corked.
But is it? It takes new forms. Today it exists as Islamic extremism.
Anyway. We deal with the Nuremberg trials here.
The Nuremberg trials were hardly fair. In fact Churchill and the British did not not want to try captured Nazi leaders at all. They wanted to shoot them as soon as they were captured. It was Stalin who wanted a show of trial. The aim was to bring the crimes of the Nazis to public notice. Otherwise it would have seemed that the Allies were afraid them.
The Americans were caught in two minds. An ailing Roosevelt was not averse to what the British were suggesting. Morgenthau too wanted them all shot. Henry Stimson wanted to follow the American judicial process, and just cowboys hanging.
What turned the balance was the new American president Truman who wanted the Nazis to be tried, at least make a show of fair play.
The interrogation of the Nazi prisoners was anything but what modern criminal interrogation is. Prisoners rights were not protected. They had no right to silence. The accused had no lawyers sitting during the questioning keep an hawk eye on breach of privilege.
The fate of the prisoners (atleast the hardcore Nazis) at the trials was a foregone conclusion. Death.
WHAT GOERING SAID WHILE THE NUREMBERG TRIALS WERE GOING ON.....
- The victor will always be the judge, and the vanquished the accused.
- After the United States gobbled up California and half of Mexico, and we were stripped down to nothing, territorial expansion suddenly becomes a crime. It's been going on for centuries, and it will still go on.
- Göring: Why, of course, the people don't want war. Why would some poor slob on a farm want to risk his life in a war when the best that he can get out of it is to come back to his farm in one piece. Naturally, the common people don't want war; neither in Russia nor in England nor in America, nor for that matter in Germany. That is understood. But, after all, it is the leaders of the country who determine the policy and it is always a simple matter to drag the people along, whether it is a democracy or a fascist dictatorship or a Parliament or a Communist dictatorship. Gilbert: There is one difference. In a democracy, the people have some say in the matter through their elected representatives, and in the United States only Congress can declare wars. Göring: Oh, that is all well and good, but, voice or no voice, the people can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to do is tell them they are being attacked and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. It works the same way in any country.
April 15, 1946, On decision to attack Russia
In Berlin Jews controlled almost one hundred percent of the theaters and cinemas before the rise to power.
May 21, 1946
I am a man who is basically opposed to atrocities or ungentlemanly actions. In 1934, I promulgated a law against vivisection. You can see, therefore, that if I disapprove of the experimentation on animals, how could I possibly be in favor of torturing humans? The prosecution says that I had something to do with the freezing experiments which were performed in the concentration camps under the auspices of the air force. That is pure Quatsch! I was much too busy to know about these medical experiments, and if anybody had asked me, I would have disapproved violently. It must have been Himmler who thought up these stupid experiments, although I think he shirked his responsibility by committing suicide. I am not too unhappy about it because I would not particularly enjoy sitting on the same bench with him. The same is true of that drunken Robert Ley, who did us a favor by hanging himself before the trial started. He was not going to be any advantage for us defendants when he took the stand.
I have to laugh when the English claim they are such a wonderful nation. Everyone knows that Englishmen are really Germans, that the English kings were German, and that in Russia the emperors were either of German origin or received their education in Germany.
May 26, 1946
Robert Jackson, the chief US prosecutor at the Nuremberg Tribunal of 1945-46, privately acknowledged in a letter to President Truman, that the Allies “have done or are doing some of the very things we are prosecuting the Germans for. The French are so violating the Geneva Convention in the treatment of [German] prisoners of war that our command is taking back prisoners sent to them [for forced labor in France]. We are prosecuting plunder and our Allies are practicing it. We say aggressive war is a crime and one of our allies asserts sovereignty over the Baltic States based on no title except conquest.”
The October 1, 1946 Süddeutsche Zeitung announces "The Verdict in Nuremberg." Depicted are (left, from top): Göring, Hess, Ribbentrop, Keitel, Kaltenbrunner, Rosenberg, Frank, Frick; (second column) Funk, Streicher, Schacht; (third column) Dönitz, Raeder, Schirach; (right, from top) Sauckel, Jodl, Papen, Seyss-Inquart, Speer, Neurath, Fritzsche, Bormann.
Image from Topography of Terror Museum, Berlin.
(Nuremberg Tribunal) "is a continuation of the war effort of the Allied nations" (against Germany). (The Tribunal) "is not bound by the procedural and substantive refinements of our respective judicial or constitutional system ..."
Robert Jackson, the chief US prosecutor and a former US Attorney General
NUREMBERG TRIALS CRITICISED
http://www.ihr.org/jhr/v12/v12p167_Webera.htmlSome of the Americans who participated in the Nuremberg trials became disillusioned with the entire business. One of the few to make public his feelings was Charles F. Wennerstrum, an Iowa Supreme Court justice who served as presiding judge in the Nuremberg trial of German generals. "If I had known seven months ago what I know today, I would never have come here," he declared immediately after sentences were pronounced. "The high ideals announced as the motives for creating these tribunals have not been evident," he added.Wennerstrum cautiously referred to the extensive Jewish involvement in the Nuremberg process. "The entire atmosphere here is unwholesome ... Lawyers, clerks, interpreters and researchers were employed who became Americans only in recent years, whose backgrounds were embedded in Europe's hatreds and prejudices." He criticized the one-sided handling of evidence. "Most of the evidence in the trials was documentary, selected from the large tonnage of captured records. The selection was made by the prosecution. The defense had access only to those documents which the prosecution considered material to the case." He concluded that "the trials were to have convinced the Germans of the guilt of their leaders. They convinced the Germans merely that their leaders lost the war to tough conquerors." Wennerstrum left Nuremberg "with a feeling that justice has been denied."
HERMANN GOERING AT NUREMBERG
WHO WAS RUDOLPH HOESS?
WHAT HAPPENED TO HOESS?
In the last days of the war, Höss was advised by Himmler to disguise himself among German Navy personnel. He evaded arrest for nearly a year. When he was captured by British troops—some of whom were Jews born in Germany—on 11 March 1946, he was disguised as a farmer and called himself Franz Lang. His wife told the British where he could be found, fearing that her son, Klaus, would be shipped off to the Soviet Union, where he surely would, at minimum, be sent to the gulag and be tortured. After being questioned and allegedly beaten severely by his captors Höss confessed his real identity. During the Nuremberg Trials, he appeared as a witness in the trials of Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Oswald Pohl, and the IG Farben corporation.
There he gave detailed testimony of his crimes: “ I commanded Auschwitz until 1 December 1943, and estimate that at least 2,500,000 victims were executed and exterminated there by gassing and burning, and at least another half million succumbed to starvation and disease, making a total dead of about 3,000,000. This figure represents about 70% or 80% of all persons sent to Auschwitz as prisoners, the remainder having been selected and used for slave labor in the concentration camp industries. Included among the executed and burnt were approximately 20,000 Russian prisoners of war (previously screened out of Prisoner of War cages by the Gestapo) who were delivered at Auschwitz in Wehrmacht transports operated by regular Wehrmacht officers and men. The remainder of the total number of victims included about 100,000 German Jews, and great numbers of citizens (mostly Jewish) from Holland, France, Belgium, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Greece, or other countries. We executed about 400,000 Hungarian Jews alone at Auschwitz in the summer of 1944 ”
On 25 May 1946, he was handed over to Polish authorities and the Supreme National Tribunal in Poland tried him for murder. During his trial, when accused of murdering three and a half million people, Höss replied, "No. Only two and one half million — the rest died from disease and starvation."
Höss was sentenced to death on 2 April 1947. The sentence was carried out on 16 April immediately adjacent to the crematorium of the former Auschwitz I concentration camp. He was hanged on gallows constructed specifically for that purpose, at the former location of the camp Gestapo.
WHAT HAPPENED TO POHL?
After the end of World War II in 1945, Pohl first hid in Upper Bavaria, then near Bremen; nevertheless, he was captured by British troops on 27 May 1946 and sentenced to death on 3 November 1947 by an American military tribunal after the Nuremberg trials for crimes against humanity, war crimes and membership in a criminal organization as well as for mass murders and crimes committed in the concentration camps administered by the SS-WVHA he was in charge.
However, Pohl was not executed right away. Officially, Pohl never left the Catholic Church, but stopped visiting churches from 1935 on. When it 'suited him best' during the Nuremberg trials, the ex-SS man started to see a Roman Catholic priest again, as he ascertained the American prison psychiatrist Dr. Goldensohn in 1946. In 1950, Pohl's book Credo. Mein Weg zu Gott ("Credo. My way to God") was published with permission from the Catholic Church, which Pohl had rejoined.
He was executed shortly after midnight on 8 June 1951 in Landsberg am Lech, where he was hanged after a long series of appeals. Pohl insisted on his innocence until his death, stating that he was only a "simple functionary"
Hermann Goering, Rudolf Hess, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Wilhelm Keitel, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Alfred Rosenberg, Hans Frank, Wilhelm Frick, Julius Streicher, Walther Funk, Hjalmar Schacht. Second row: Karl Donitz, Erich Raeder, Baldur von Schirach, Fritz Sauckel, Alfred Jodl, Franz von Papen, Arthur Seyss-Inquart, Albert Speer, Konstantin von Neurath, Hans Fritzsche.
Second row, from left to right: Karl Donitz, Erich Raeder, Baldur von Schirach, Fritz Sauckel.
SIDELIGHTS DURING NUREMBERG TRIAL
"One day we were visited by an American photographer-in-chief, and said that if we wanted to click some pictures, then we could go with him. We were led into a room which was about 40 square meters. Against the wall stood a table which had no light. Seated at each table were four persons. Here in the picture are seen- Goering, Rosenberg, Admiral Doenitz and von Schirach. Keitel and Jodl sat together. I walked along the wall with my camera and started taking pictures. Keitel, covered his face with his hand. Then I went to the table which seated Goering. As Americans and French photographers clicked away, he did not say anything. But as soon as he saw my Russian uniforms, he began to cry. "What is it, we can not safely eat!" An American lieutenant came and asked him what was wrong, why was Göring shouting? "I have no idea", I said. I only wanted to take some photographs. The lieutenant went to Goering and told him to stop yelling. But he did not stop. The lieutenant picked up the baton and gave Goering a little thump on the head. After that, all was quiet. "
German Field Marshal Friedrich Paulus serves as a witness at the Nuremberg trials.
During the Nuremberg Trials, Paulus was asked about the Stalingrad prisoners by a journalist. Paulus told the journalist to tell the wives and mothers that their husbands and sons were well. Of the 91,000 German prisoners taken at Stalingrad, half had died on the march to Siberian prison camps, nearly as many died in captivity; only about 6,000 returned home.
WHAT HAPPENED TO JODL?
Kaltenbrunner was executed by hanging at around 1:40 a.m. on 16 October 1946. Kaltenbrunner's last words were: “ I have loved my German people and my fatherland with a warm heart. I have done my duty by the laws of my people and I am sorry this time my people were led by men who were not soldiers and that crimes were committed of which I had no knowledge. Germany, good luck."
HESS AT NUREMBERG