JUST PUT IN "HistoryImages" in Google Search or your browser to find this site quickly.
The site opens slowly at times initially. We ask for your patience.

Search This Site

Custom Search

Search The Web

Custom Search

Translate

Translate This Page



History Images

History Images

Search Below For Anything You Want

History In Images Poll

Did The Victorious Allies Treat Germans Fairly After WW2 Ended?
  
pollcode.com free polls 

NUREMBERG TRIALS: Removing All Traces Of Nazi Germany (LARGE IMAGES)

"Why don't you just shoot us?" 
Unknown Nazi war criminal
-----
"It was the virtue of the Nuremberg trial that it was conceived in hatred of war, and nurtured by those starved of peace. Of course, the trial was botched and imperfect...it had to deal with new crimes for which there was no provision in national law or international law." 
Rebecca West
----


If the standards of the Nuremberg Tribunal had been applied impartially, many American, Soviet and other Allied military and political leaders would have been hanged.



".. a libel on the military profession." - Vice Admiral Hewlett Thebaud, USN

 "... a fantastic desecration of the ideals of Western Civilisation, and appalling miscarriage of justice... a misuse of evidence for vicious ends, all of which will someday be exposed as a shocking travesty of high legal and moral principles." - Henry M. Adams, Ph.D. Professor of History, University of California

Nuremberg Trials. They were supposedly set up to punish those guilty of war crimes. The trial was held by the victors, to punish the defeated. They were meant to make sure that no traces of Nazi Germany remained. It had taken America, Russia and Britain to come together to defeat it and Nuremberg was meant to make sure that all traces were wiped out. The genie was firmly put back into the bottle and it was firmly corked.

But is it? It takes new forms. Today it exists as Islamic extremism.

Anyway. We deal with the Nuremberg trials here.

The Nuremberg trials were hardly fair. In fact Churchill and the British did not not want to try captured Nazi leaders at all. They wanted to shoot them as soon as they were captured. It was Stalin who wanted a show of trial. The aim was to bring the crimes of the Nazis to public notice. Otherwise it would have seemed that the Allies were afraid them. 

The Americans were caught in two minds. An ailing Roosevelt was not averse to what the British were suggesting. Morgenthau too wanted them all shot. Henry Stimson wanted to follow the American judicial process, and just cowboys hanging.

What turned the balance was the new American president Truman who wanted the Nazis to be tried, at least make a show of fair play.

The interrogation of the Nazi prisoners was anything but what modern criminal interrogation is. Prisoners rights were not protected. They had no right to silence. The accused had no lawyers sitting during the questioning keep an hawk eye on breach of privilege.

The fate of the prisoners (atleast the hardcore Nazis) at the trials was a foregone conclusion. Death.




 Former Reich Minister Hermann Goering in the aviation hall of the Nuremberg Tribunal. 1945

WHAT GOERING SAID WHILE THE NUREMBERG TRIALS WERE GOING ON.....


These statements were recorded in Gustave Gilbert's transcriptions of conversations with many of the Nazi leaders during the War Crimes Trials at Nuremberg, and later published in Gilbert's Nuremberg Diary(1947).

  • The victor will always be the judge, and the vanquished the accused.
  • After the United States gobbled up California and half of Mexico, and we were stripped down to nothing, territorial expansion suddenly becomes a crime. It's been going on for centuries, and it will still go on.
  • Göring: Why, of course, the people don't want war. Why would some poor slob on a farm want to risk his life in a war when the best that he can get out of it is to come back to his farm in one piece. Naturally, the common people don't want war; neither in Russia nor in England nor in America, nor for that matter in Germany. That is understood. But, after all, it is the leaders of the country who determine the policy and it is always a simple matter to drag the people along, whether it is a democracy or a fascist dictatorship or a Parliament or a Communist dictatorship. Gilbert: There is one difference. In a democracy, the people have some say in the matter through their elected representatives, and in the United States only Congress can declare wars. Göring: Oh, that is all well and good, but, voice or no voice, the people can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to do is tell them they are being attacked and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. It works the same way in any country.

To Leon Goldensohn (28 May 1946)

The Russians are primitive folk. Besides, Bolshevism is something that stifles individualism and which is against my inner nature. Bolshevism is worse than National Socialism — in fact, it can't be compared to it. Bolshevism is against private property, and I am all in favor of private property. Bolshevism is barbaric and crude, and I am fully convinced that that atrocities committed by the Nazis, which incidentally I knew nothing about, were not nearly as great or as cruel as those committed by the Communists. I hate the Communists bitterly because I hate the system. The delusion that all men are equal is ridiculous. I feel that I am superior to most Russians, not only because I am a German but because my cultural and family background are superior. How ironic it is that crude Russian peasants who wear the uniforms of generals now sit in judgment on me. No matter how educated a Russian might be, he is still a barbaric Asiatic. Secondly, the Russian generals and the Russian government planned a war against Germany because we represented a threat to them ideologically. In the German state, I was the chief opponent of Communism. I admit freely and proudly that it was I who created the first concentration camps in order to put Communists in them. Did I ever tell you that funny story about how I sent to Spain a ship containing mainly bricks and stones, under which I put a single layer of ammunition which had been ordered by the Red government in Spain? The purpose of that ship was to supply the waning Red government with munitions. That was a good practical joke and I am proud of it because I wanted with all my heart to see Russian Communism in Spain defeated finally.

To Leon Goldensohn

Hitler decided that. I thought it was stupid because I believed that first we had to defeat England.
April 15, 1946, On decision to attack Russia

In Berlin Jews controlled almost one hundred percent of the theaters and cinemas before the rise to power.
May 21, 1946

Hitler had the willpower of a demon and he needed it. If he didn't have such a strong willpower he couldn't have achieved anything. Don't forget, if Hitler had not lost the war, if he did not have to fight against the combination of big powers like England, America, and Russia — each one he could have conquered individually — these defendants and these generals would now be saying, 'Heil Hitler,' and would not be so damn critical.

To me there are two Hitlers: one who existed until the end of the French war; the other begins with the Russian campaign. In the beginning he was genial and pleasant. He would have extraordinary willpower and unheard-of influence on people. The important thing to remember is that the first Hitler, the man who I knew until the end of the French war, had much charm and goodwill. He was always frank. The second Hitler, who existed from the beginning of the Russian campaign until his suicide, was always suspicious, easily upset, and tense. He was distrustful to an extreme degree.

I am a man who is basically opposed to atrocities or ungentlemanly actions. In 1934, I promulgated a law against vivisection. You can see, therefore, that if I disapprove of the experimentation on animals, how could I possibly be in favor of torturing humans? The prosecution says that I had something to do with the freezing experiments which were performed in the concentration camps under the auspices of the air force. That is pure Quatsch! I was much too busy to know about these medical experiments, and if anybody had asked me, I would have disapproved violently. It must have been Himmler who thought up these stupid experiments, although I think he shirked his responsibility by committing suicide. I am not too unhappy about it because I would not particularly enjoy sitting on the same bench with him. The same is true of that drunken Robert Ley, who did us a favor by hanging himself before the trial started. He was not going to be any advantage for us defendants when he took the stand.
May 24, 1946

I have to laugh when the English claim they are such a wonderful nation. Everyone knows that Englishmen are really Germans, that the English kings were German, and that in Russia the emperors were either of German origin or received their education in Germany.
May 26, 1946

-----------------------------------
Robert Jackson, the chief US prosecutor at the Nuremberg Tribunal of 1945-46, privately acknowledged in a letter to President Truman, that the Allies “have done or are doing some of the very things we are prosecuting the Germans for. The French are so violating the Geneva Convention in the treatment of [German] prisoners of war that our command is taking back prisoners sent to them [for forced labor in France]. We are prosecuting plunder and our Allies are practicing it. We say aggressive war is a crime and one of our allies asserts sovereignty over the Baltic States based on no title except conquest.” 
-------------------------------------------



The October 1, 1946 Süddeutsche Zeitung announces "The Verdict in Nuremberg." Depicted are (left, from top): Göring, Hess, Ribbentrop, Keitel, Kaltenbrunner, Rosenberg, Frank, Frick; (second column) Funk, Streicher, Schacht; (third column) Dönitz, Raeder, Schirach; (right, from top) Sauckel, Jodl, Papen, Seyss-Inquart, Speer, Neurath, Fritzsche, Bormann.
Image from Topography of Terror Museum, Berlin.

--------
 (Nuremberg Tribunal) "is a continuation of the war effort of the Allied nations" (against Germany). (The Tribunal) "is not bound by the procedural and substantive refinements of our respective judicial or constitutional system ..." 
Robert Jackson, the chief US prosecutor and a former US Attorney General

-------



NUREMBERG TRIALS CRITICISED


Critics of the Nuremberg trials argued that the charges against the defendants were only defined as "crimes" after they were committed and that therefore the trial was invalid as a form of "victors' justice".

As Biddiss noted "...the Nuremberg Trial continues to haunt us... It is a question also of the weaknesses and strengths of the proceedings themselves. The undoubted flaws rightly continue to trouble the thoughtful." 

Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court Harlan Fiske Stone called the Nuremberg trials a fraud. "(Chief U.S. prosecutor) Jackson is away conducting his high-grade lynching party in Nuremberg," he wrote. "I don't mind what he does to the Nazis, but I hate to see the pretense that he is running a court and proceeding according to common law. This is a little too sanctimonious a fraud to meet my old-fashioned ideas." Jackson, in a letter discussing the weaknesses of the trial, in October 1945 told U.S. President Harry S. Truman that the Allies themselves "have done or are doing some of the very things we are prosecuting the Germans for. The French are so violating the Geneva Convention in the treatment of prisoners of war that our command is taking back prisoners sent to them. We are prosecuting plunder and our Allies are practicing it. We say aggressive war is a crime and one of our allies asserts sovereignty over the Baltic States based on no title except conquest." 

Associate Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas charged that the Allies were guilty of "substituting power for principle" at Nuremberg. "I thought at the time and still think that the Nuremberg trials were unprincipled," he wrote. "Law was created ex post facto to suit the passion and clamor of the time." U.S. Deputy Chief Counsel Abraham Pomerantz resigned in protest at the low caliber of the judges assigned to try the industrial war criminals such as those at I.G. Farben

The Nuremberg Trials
---------------------------

Some of the Americans who participated in the Nuremberg trials became disillusioned with the entire business. One of the few to make public his feelings was Charles F. Wennerstrum, an Iowa Supreme Court justice who served as presiding judge in the Nuremberg trial of German generals. "If I had known seven months ago what I know today, I would never have come here," he declared immediately after sentences were pronounced. "The high ideals announced as the motives for creating these tribunals have not been evident," he added. 
Wennerstrum cautiously referred to the extensive Jewish involvement in the Nuremberg process. "The entire atmosphere here is unwholesome ... Lawyers, clerks, interpreters and researchers were employed who became Americans only in recent years, whose backgrounds were embedded in Europe's hatreds and prejudices." He criticized the one-sided handling of evidence. "Most of the evidence in the trials was documentary, selected from the large tonnage of captured records. The selection was made by the prosecution. The defense had access only to those documents which the prosecution considered material to the case." He concluded that "the trials were to have convinced the Germans of the guilt of their leaders. They convinced the Germans merely that their leaders lost the war to tough conquerors." Wennerstrum left Nuremberg "with a feeling that justice has been denied."
http://www.ihr.org/jhr/v12/v12p167_Webera.html


-----------------------------------------

Hermann Goering at the Nuremberg trial

HERMANN GOERING AT NUREMBERG
(Source: BBC)


Goering was captured shortly after the end of the war with large quantities of his looted artworks. He thought he could negotiate with the Allies as Germany's most senior politician, but he found himself under arrest, stripped of everything, and held in an improvised prison camp before his transfer to Nuremberg to stand trial. 

 He was a big personality in every sense. The guards nicknamed him 'Fat Stuff' and bantered with him. He was charming, aloof and confident, and from the start was determined to dominate the other prisoners and make them follow his line of defence. 

 Goering insisted that everything that they had done was the result of their German patriotism. To defy the court was to protect Germany's reputation and to maintain their loyalty to their dead leader. 

 From the start Goering was determined to dominate the other prisoners and make them follow his line of defence. With the start of the trial, Goering assumed at once the informal role as leader and spokesman for the whole cohort of prisoners. He was given the most prominent position in the dock. When it came to his cross-examination he prepared carefully and in the opening exchanges with the American chief prosecutor Robert Jackson he emerged an easy winner.

 So frustrated did Jackson become with Goering's clever, mocking but evasive responses that at the end of the session he threw down the headphones he had been wearing to hear the translated answers and refused to continue. 'If you all handle yourselves half as well as I did,' Goering boasted to the other prisoners, 'you will do all right.' Only after his cross-examination by the more experienced British barrister, Sir David Maxwell-Fyfe, was Goering at last cut down to size. For the prosecution teams, Goering's domineering role among the prisoner body posed a problem. 

In mid-February 1946, on the recommendation of the psychologist who monitored prisoner behaviour, Goering was forced to exercise and take his meals on his own. His isolation allowed the other prisoners to talk freely to each other and in the courtroom. The united front that Goering wanted soon collapsed. 

 During the long summer months, when he had to listen to the catalogue of crimes and atrocities laid at the door of the system he had served, he became less confident. But he maintained his loyalty to Hitler until the very end, when he finally confessed to the prison psychologist his realisation that in the eyes of the German people Hitler had 'condemned himself'.

 Goering was found guilty on all the charges laid against him and condemned to death. He regarded the whole trial as simply a case of victors' justice and had not expected to escape with his life. At the very end he cheated his captors. On 14 October 1946, the night before he was to be executed, he committed suicide with a phial of cyanide either hidden in his cell or smuggled in by a sympathetic guard.
----------------------------------------
About this whole judgment there is the spirit of vengeance, and vengeance is seldom justice. The hanging of the eleven men convicted will be a blot on the American record which we will long regret. In these trials we have accepted the Russian idea of the purpose of trials -- government policy and not justice -- with little relation to Anglo-Saxon heritage. By clothing policy in the forms of legal procedure, we many discredit the whole idea of justice in Europe for years to come.
Robert A. Taft, a then American Senator
--------------------------------------------
One of the leaders of the Third Reich, the Reich Minister of the Imperial Ministry of Aviation, Hermann Goering speaking at the Nuremberg Trials. He was sentenced to death but he committed suicide on the evening of October 15, 1946, a few hours before his execution.

The Former commander of Auschwitz Concentration camp, Rudolf Höß (Hoess) , in the Witness Stand

WHO WAS RUDOLPH HOESS?

Rudolf Franz Ferdinand Hoess ( 25 November 1900[1] – 16 April 1947) was an SS-Obersturmbannführer (Lieutenant Colonel), and from 4 May 1940 to November 1943, the first commandant of Auschwitz concentration camp, where it is estimated that more than a million people were murdered. Höss joined the Nazi Party in 1922, the SS in 1934. He was hanged in 1947 following his trial at Warsaw.

WHAT HAPPENED TO HOESS?
In the last days of the war, Höss was advised by Himmler to disguise himself among German Navy personnel. He evaded arrest for nearly a year. When he was captured by British troops—some of whom were Jews born in Germany—on 11 March 1946, he was disguised as a farmer and called himself Franz Lang. His wife told the British where he could be found, fearing that her son, Klaus, would be shipped off to the Soviet Union, where he surely would, at minimum, be sent to the gulag and be tortured. After being questioned and allegedly beaten severely by his captors Höss confessed his real identity. During the Nuremberg Trials, he appeared as a witness in the trials of Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Oswald Pohl, and the IG Farben corporation.

There he gave detailed testimony of his crimes: “ I commanded Auschwitz until 1 December 1943, and estimate that at least 2,500,000 victims were executed and exterminated there by gassing and burning, and at least another half million succumbed to starvation and disease, making a total dead of about 3,000,000. This figure represents about 70% or 80% of all persons sent to Auschwitz as prisoners, the remainder having been selected and used for slave labor in the concentration camp industries. Included among the executed and burnt were approximately 20,000 Russian prisoners of war (previously screened out of Prisoner of War cages by the Gestapo) who were delivered at Auschwitz in Wehrmacht transports operated by regular Wehrmacht officers and men. The remainder of the total number of victims included about 100,000 German Jews, and great numbers of citizens (mostly Jewish) from Holland, France, Belgium, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Greece, or other countries. We executed about 400,000 Hungarian Jews alone at Auschwitz in the summer of 1944 ”

On 25 May 1946, he was handed over to Polish authorities and the Supreme National Tribunal in Poland tried him for murder. During his trial, when accused of murdering three and a half million people, Höss replied, "No. Only two and one half million — the rest died from disease and starvation."

Höss was sentenced to death on 2 April 1947. The sentence was carried out on 16 April immediately adjacent to the crematorium of the former Auschwitz I concentration camp. He was hanged on gallows constructed specifically for that purpose, at the former location of the camp Gestapo.
 Hoess being executed in Poland

SS General Oswald Pohl gives testimony at the Nuremberg trials. One of the most important and illustrative cases in Nuremberg, was the trial of Oswald Pohl, who headed the wartime SS organization wide (WVHA), in charge of the concentration camps 

WHAT HAPPENED TO POHL?

After the end of World War II in 1945, Pohl first hid in Upper Bavaria, then near Bremen; nevertheless, he was captured by British troops on 27 May 1946 and sentenced to death on 3 November 1947 by an American military tribunal after the Nuremberg trials for crimes against humanity, war crimes and membership in a criminal organization as well as for mass murders and crimes committed in the concentration camps administered by the SS-WVHA he was in charge. 

However, Pohl was not executed right away. Officially, Pohl never left the Catholic Church, but stopped visiting churches from 1935 on. When it 'suited him best' during the Nuremberg trials, the ex-SS man started to see a Roman Catholic priest again, as he ascertained the American prison psychiatrist Dr. Goldensohn in 1946. In 1950, Pohl's book Credo. Mein Weg zu Gott ("Credo. My way to God") was published with permission from the Catholic Church, which Pohl had rejoined. 

He was executed shortly after midnight on 8 June 1951 in Landsberg am Lech, where he was hanged after a long series of appeals. Pohl insisted on his innocence until his death, stating that he was only a "simple functionary"

Oswald Pohl hears the death sentence he received

The accused in the dock. First row: Hermann Goering, Rudolf Hess, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Wilhelm Keitel, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Alfred Rosenberg, Hans Frank, Wilhelm Frick, Julius Streicher, Walther Funk, Hjalmar Schacht. Second row: Karl Donitz, Erich Raeder, Baldur von Schirach, Fritz Sauckel, Alfred Jodl, Franz von Papen, Arthur Seyss-Inquart, Albert Speer, Konstantin von Neurath, Hans Fritzsche.
The leaders of the Nazi regime who faced the trial.  First row, left to right: Hermann Goering, Rudolf Hess, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Wilhelm Keitel. Second row, from left to right: Karl Donitz, Erich Raeder, Baldur von Schirach, Fritz Sauckel.

The main accused in the Nuremberg trials against war criminals. In the background is visible to the elevator door, through which the accused got into the hall. 

Hermann Goering has supper during the trials

SIDELIGHTS DURING NUREMBERG TRIAL

Yevgeny Khaldei: was a Russian Army's lens man who shot the famous photograph of the Russian soldier hoisting the Red Flag over the Reichstag in 1945. He was present during the Nuremberg trials. He tells about a little incident that occurred.

"One day we were visited by an American photographer-in-chief, and said that if we wanted to click some pictures, then we could go with him. We were led into a room which was about 40 square meters. Against the wall stood a table which had no light. Seated at each table were four persons. Here in the picture are seen- Goering, Rosenberg, Admiral Doenitz and von Schirach. Keitel and Jodl sat together. I walked along the wall with my camera and started taking pictures. Keitel, covered his face with his hand. Then I went to the table which seated Goering. As Americans and French photographers clicked away, he did not say anything. But as soon as he saw my Russian uniforms, he began to cry. "What is it, we can not safely eat!"  An American lieutenant came and asked him what was wrong, why was Göring shouting? "I have no idea", I said. I only wanted to take some photographs. The lieutenant went to Goering and told him to stop yelling. But he did not  stop. The lieutenant picked up the baton and gave Goering  a little thump on the head. After that, all was quiet. "

 German Field Marshal Friedrich Paulus serves as a witness at the Nuremberg trials. 

NUREMBERG SIDELIGHTS

During the Nuremberg Trials, Paulus was asked about the Stalingrad prisoners by a journalist. Paulus told the journalist to tell the wives and mothers that their husbands and sons were well. Of the 91,000 German prisoners taken at Stalingrad, half had died on the march to Siberian prison camps, nearly as many died in captivity; only about 6,000 returned home.

The body of Colonel General Alfred Jodl after the execution. October 16, 1946

WHAT HAPPENED TO JODL?


Jodl was arrested and transferred to Flensburg POW camp and later put before the International Military Tribunal at the Nuremberg Trials. Jodl was accused of conspiracy to commit crimes against peace; planning, initiating and waging wars of aggression; war crimes; and crimes against humanity. The principal charges against him related to his signature of the Commando Order and the Commissar Order, both of which ordered that certain prisoners were to be summarily executed. Additional charges at his trial included unlawful deportation and abetting execution. Presented as evidence was his signature on an order that transferred Danish citizens, including Jews and other civilians, to concentration camps. Although he denied his role in the crime, the court sustained his complicity based on the given evidence. 

His wife Luise attached herself to her husband's defense team. Subsequently interviewed by Gitta Sereny, researching her biography of Albert Speer, Luise alleged that in many instances the Allied prosecution made charges against Jodl based on documents that they refused to share with the defense. 

Jodl nevertheless proved that some of the charges made against him were untrue, such as the charge that he had helped Hitler gain control of Germany in 1933. Jodl pleaded not guilty "before God, before history and my people". Found guilty on all four charges, he was hanged (with Keitel, on 16 October 1946) although he had asked the court to be executed by firing squad. 

Jodl's last words were reportedly "Ich grüße Dich, mein ewiges Deutschland - My greetings to you, my eternal Germany." He was declared dead 18 minutes later.

Corridor with cameras in Nuremberg. Every cell had a camera that were installed after the suicide of Robert Ley October 25, 1945. 

Photographers covering the Nuremberg trials. 1946. They were not allowed inside the courtroom while the sentences were read out.

 Reich Marshal Hermann Goering's body. October 16, 1946. He killed himself a day before he was to be executed with a poison pill. It is alleged he got the pill from his wife who visited him in prison.

Guards in front of the entrance to Court Room 600. 

Ernst Kaltenbrunner's case being debated  at the Nuremberg trials. December 28, 1945 

Kaltenbrunner was executed by hanging at around 1:40 a.m. on 16 October 1946. Kaltenbrunner's last words were: “ I have loved my German people and my fatherland with a warm heart. I have done my duty by the laws of my people and I am sorry this time my people were led by men who were not soldiers and that crimes were committed of which I had no knowledge. Germany, good luck."

A security guard looks through the peephole camera  in Goering's cell. Monitoring of the accused in all the chambers was strictly done to prevent a possible suicide. The lamp in front of a lattice cell door stood lit day and night.

Hess, von Ribbentrop, Goering and Keitel at Nuremberg.

HESS AT NUREMBERG
(Source: BBC)

The most bizarre choice to stand trial was Hitler's deputy and head of the party chancellery, Rudolf Hess. There was no doubt that he had been a key figure in organising and running the party in the 1920s and early 1930s. He it was who took down the dictated draft of Hitler's 'Mein Kampf'. But from the mid-1930s he became a more marginal political figure - 'one of the great cranks of the Third Reich', in the words of Speer. In May 1941 - apparently anxious at his loss of favour with Hitler and pre-occupied with the dangers of the impending two-front war which would follow Germany's attack on the USSR scheduled for June - Hess took a plane and flew it to Scotland. Here he was captured by the British, interrogated and put in an institution. 

He became increasingly paranoid and eventually descended into long periods of self-induced hysterical amnesia. Hess spent his time in court reading, occasionally laughing and disregarding the process around him. It was in this state of almost complete forgetfulness that Hess was eventually flown to Nuremberg in October 1945 at the insistence of the Soviets, who had been puzzled and distrustful about what Hess had been doing in Britain for four years. 

 It became clear that a decision had to be taken about whether he was fit to plead. A panel of medical and psychiatric experts was recruited and finally recommended on 29 November, more than a week after the trial had started, that Hess was fit to plead. The following day, to the shock of the court, Hess suddenly stood up apparently lucid at last and announced: 'My memory is in order again.' Hess retained his lucidity for a few weeks, but with partial memory loss. He then relapsed into complete amnesia again and spent his time in court reading, occasionally laughing and disregarding the process around him. 

In a conventional criminal court he would have been deemed to be of unsound mind, but the Allies were worried about the effect it might have on the public perception of the trial if Hess were removed. He was sentenced to life imprisonment, though he pretended not to hear or understand the judgement. He committed suicide in Spandau prison, Berlin, in 1987.




References

1 comment:

Anonymous said...

As a sudent in high school over thirty years ago, I consumed every book on WWII I could. There is a photo I am looking for from back then that has never been explained. It was of the Nuremberg Trial and it showed everyone laughing at something, even the guards in the back by the door are reacting. Goering is beside himself with laughter. These trials were nt funny and I have always wondered what happened at that moment that sent everyone into laughter. I cannot find it and would love to know any info on it as this has bugged this old history teacher for many years now. Please respond if you know and I thank you.
Leigh Martin

Please Write In.....


Your views and comments are invaluable. Just click on "Post a Comment" above.





We apologise if some time elapses before your comment is published. No profanities please!

SEARCH THIS SITE

Custom Search

Angriff The German Attack on Stalingrad In Photos [Hardcover]

Angriff The German Attack on Stalingrad In Photos [Hardcover]
"This volume reads just like a history due to the extensive captions that were researched extensively"

Recent Articles

Your Recent Comments

Recent Comments Widget

Search Below For Any Book, DVD, For Anything In The UK

Search Below For Any Book, DVD, For Anything In CANADA

Please use the Google Search below. There is a treasure trove to search for about war and history on this site

Search This Site

Custom Search

Search The Web

Custom Search

Popular Posts

Points To Ponder

WHY WAS THE FIGHTING ON THE RUSSIAN FRONT SO FIERCE DURING WW2?

It is difficult to distinguish between the quality of both the German and Russian soldiers. Both were motivated by their love for their motherland. But there were others factors that drove the two sides to such desperate fighting.

One, both sides knew that this was a no-holds bar war. Not fighting was thus not an option.

Second, both Hitler and Stalin had squads that killed any deserter. Turning away from fighting was just not possible.

Thus was seen some of the most bitter, brutal and desperate fighting on the WW2 eastern (Russian) Front.
"Those who do not remember the past are condemned to repeat it."
-- George Santayana


Quotes....

"Be polite; write diplomatically; even in a declaration of war one observes the rules of politeness."
--Otto von Bismarck

"When the enemy advances, withdraw; when he stops, harass; when he tires, strike; when he retreats, pursue.'
--Mao Zedong

SEARCH

Custom Search

Copyright

The publishers of this site DO NOT own the copyrights of the images on the site. The copyrights lie with the respective owners.

If inadvertently any copy-righted material is published on this site, the right holder may contact us at balri24@gmail.com. We will remove it immediately.

Your Comments

Senior Observer said...

The reason the German soldier did not rape and loot as the other armies did. Including the US. (I was there) was the discipline. Half the troops or at least a great number of troops on my train to the front were AWOL's or deserters. That would not have happened in the German military. You left your post you were shot. Simple as that. Germans knew that so deserting was not an option. But the ordinary soldier knew that also applied to the officers. You did your duty or else.Remember Rommel? Hitler didn't care. Just follow orders. The respect for the officer by the ordinary soldier was good. I didn't have much respect for our officers. For months after the war we were still drinking instant coffee and instant milk. The general was living it up in London I suppose because I never saw him afterwards even though I was in 3rd DIVARTY Have a nice day

FALL OF FRANCE






History Best Selling DVDs

History Best Selling DVDs
First World War: The Complete Series
This definitive ten-part series offers insight and analysis to provide a coherent and strategic military narrative of the worldwide conflict that changed history.
BUY DVD 
Search Amazon.com for 'First World War'

Great Comments

"The photos are nice, but I hate the way the nazis are portrayed. They are portrayed as always evil. Think about it. What do you think would happen when a country loses WWI? When they enter a depression and are stolen from by gypsies and jews?! Also, the Russians were just as brutal if not worse. They ran the gulags! They murdered men, women, and children who opposed communism. Stalin's regime killed 65MILLION people in it's lifetime. Hitler killed 21MILLION. Take your pick, you politically correct WUSS!"

Anonymous on Nazi Germany: A Pictorial History


"ever heard of the saying two wrongs don't make a right. yes they lost ww1, but they started it so they got their just deserts. and hitler was pure evil,theres no doubt he was a great leader and orator that took advantage of a country in despair. he stood by people that were simular to him and used them to 'persuade' others in high places to flock to his banner. once in power it was easy to unite a nation with his speaches that germeny could rule the world at ANY cost, the hatetred between germany and russia was legendry with both country's sinking to new levels of barbarism.as for russia killing millions of their own under stalin, yes, that was an atocity in itself but it was an internal matter in russia. nothing to do with the west. germany treated the russians as less than human in fact, less than the jews and the feelings were neutral. the battle of stalingrad were tesamony to that. so picking someone to like because they killed 21m instead of 65m is just sick and shows what sort of person you really are. i will say though that although these pictures are interesting, dont belive everything that they show. the picture at the top seems to show two peasants being shot, both are women so we asume that they are inocents. not so, women fought along side their men with amazing efect. rusian women were excellent marksmen and made effective snipers and machine gunners. not behind them a machingun nest. its more likely that the machingun nest was overun and they are being shot for shooting german soldiers. that being said, it saddens me to say that many of the pictures do depict atrocities that the devil himself would be ashamed of.having never been in a war, i can't imagine what humans would go through under such horrific conditions. knowing death was just around the corner probly turned the most mild mannered men and women into monsters. im not going to justify there actions or condone them but to understand what they went through. i hope for all our sakes we never have to go through anything like it again. but i think we will."
Anonymous on Nazi Germany: A Pictorial History

History In Pictures

Quotes....

"The main thing is to make history, not to write it."
--Otto von Bismarck

"When you have to kill a man it costs nothing to be polite."
--Winston Churchill

Quotes....

"In time of war the loudest patriots are the greatest profiteers."
--August Bebel

"God is not on the side of the big battalions, but on the side of those who shoot best."
--Voltaire

Great Comments....

I think it's important to remember that the German army at this time was one of the most disciplined fighting forces in the world. It's the reason Hitler made them swear an oath on his rise to Fuhrer; he knew they wouldn't break it.

That unflinching devotion to service and country would be their undoing, eventually - there were many suicides in combat. German soldiers who just couldn't deal with the brutality anymore - and the crime. Even leadership attempted to murder Hitler several times.

The Nazis were Germans, but the Germans weren't Nazis. Not all German soldiers were so criminally cruel. Most criminal cruelty was perpetrated not by the German Army, but by the Nazis and their divisions (SS, Gestapo, etc)
(Brutality Of Germans In Russia)
-- By Anonymous

Quotes about War....

"Anyone who has ever looked into the glazed eyes of a soldier dying on the battlefield will think hard before starting a war."
---Otto von Bismarck

Quotes....

"Naturally the common people don't want war; neither in Russia, nor in England, nor in America, nor in Germany. That is understood. But after all, it is the leaders of the country who determine policy, and it is always a simple matter to drag the people along, whether it is a democracy, or a fascist dictatorship, or a parliament, or a communist dictatorship. Voice or no voice, the people can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to do is to tell them they are being attacked, and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. It works the same in any country."
--Hermann Goering

Quotes....

"To conquer the enemy without resorting to war is the most desirable. The highest form of generalship is to conquer the enemy by strategy."
--Tzu Sun

"All men are brothers, like the seas throughout the world; So why do winds and waves clash so fiercely everywhere?"
--Emperor Hirohito